Monday, March 30, 2020

Bangalore Exploring an alien city Essays

Bangalore Exploring an alien city Essays Bangalore Exploring an alien city Essay Bangalore Exploring an alien city Essay How exciting would that be, the moment I imagine of starting a life in Bangor, my dream city. Strange thoughts filled in my mind, anticipating the outcome. I started my Job search and found the Job market quite responsive. I got the first call, then one and then another for the Job opportunity as filtered by me in Nikkei and monster. Well!! Now its the time to take it all at my stride. And finally, there it is. To my utter surprise and Gods blessings, I got my first break in a privately owned company located near my PEG at Grammarian. My Joys knew no bounds! Of course, now I am employed, I can try out many places, the food delicacies, the enchanting city life, different attires, and ways of grooming myself at my best. Oh, I loved the taste of yummy birdbrains, bar pap, panaches , sizzlers and the rocking time I had in barbeques nation on a grand office gala party. The colors of freedom taking its toll! I can do anything which I desire! But of course, I always make it a point to share those experiences with my family and keep them informed about my move. Enjoying the posh lifestyle, I came across many friends from diverse ultra and origin. Each day is happening and inviting something new, and I loved the newness protruding into my life. Transforming myself from a typical village looking girl to chic look lass had a lot added benefits! Right from a single Faceable update to a status change has its impact so much so that I bagged 80 likes for my new pick update!! And comments with posts flooded my inbox. A new look and a new girl in town, I had many things in my mind to do, to enjoy! So many invites to add me in Faceable. Oh! I am loving it! Talking about the city, the city is clean and its people ere are quite helpful, welcoming and compassionate, despite the auto rickshaw pullers who annoy the new bees and charge high on fares. Being a victim of overcharging, I still recall the fights I encountered such cumbersome situations with the rickracks. Vendors such as catwalks, pain purr Wallas, Juice/corn sellers, or the ice cream Wallas wont bother you much for chillers, unlike other places. And one thing I noted here, no question of bargaining!! If you like, you pick at the price fixed. No arguments and no word of mouth! Strange enough, sometimes it astonishes me to mind that all the Archie rich, elite class dwells in the city clearly manifesting the extravagant touch in the air. Once your wallet is full, you will find it easy to go, else be in limits. Coming across the travels and tours in and around the city, I visited Nadia hills, Tip sultan palace, and Moser. I was so charmed by the malls and the parks which beautify the city more. There are many other places yet to be visited, to be seen. Exploring the city itself is so fun and exciting . I have still much more to find out and explore. Bangor Exploring an alien city By shabbiness

Saturday, March 7, 2020

History 600

History 600 History 600-1850 Essay Five Pillars of Islam – core practices and beliefs of every Muslim. Found clear expression in the Quran. Undergirded Islamic practice and gave the imperial system a doctrinal and legal structure and broad appeal to diverse populations. Caliphate – political institution of the early Islamic state. Signified both the political and spiritual head of the Islamic community. Rose as the successor to Muhammad’s leadership. Muhammad – former trader. Went to Mecca where God gave him revelations. Preachings ad messages from God became central to Islamic faith. Quran – 114 chapters (suras). Word of God that flowed through Muhammad. Teachings/foundational text of Islam. Sharia – Islamic law. Crucial foundation of Islam. Covers all legal aspects of practical and spiritual life including legal principles for marriage contracts, trade regulations, prayer, pilgrimage rites, and ritual fasting. Reflects work of generations of religious scholars rather than soldiers/bureaucrats/courtiers. Shiites – â€Å"members of the party of Ali†. Dissidents of Sunni. Felt Ali should have been proper successors. Believed his descendants (imams) have religious and prophetic power and political authority. Caliph – Empress Wu – only female ruler in Chinese history. exploited the examination system to check the power of aristocratic families. Consolidated courtly authority by creating groups of loyal bureaucrats. Challenged Confucian beliefs that subordinated women. Eunuchs – castrated males who protected the royal family. Wielded much court power in Baghdad and Tang Empire. Worked alongside official bureaucracy and imperial court. Eunuch bureaucracy mediated between the emperor and provincial governments. Silla – one of the â€Å"Three Kingdoms† in Korea. Gained control over the entire peninsula and unified it. Dispatched annual embassies to the Chinese capital, regularly sent students and monks → literary Chinese became the written language of Korean elites, not vernacular. Prince Shotoku – introduced Buddhism to Japan. Promoted both Buddhism and Confucianism, which led Japan (like China) to be accommodating to numerous religions. Shinto – native religious culture of Japan. Prince Shotoku was credited for introducing the above faiths to them. Charlemagne – king of the Franks in northern Europe. Controlled much of western Europe. Ruled for 40 years. Often travelled 2,000 miles a year on campaigns of plunder and conquest. Heir to Rome. Karim – loose confederations of shippers banding together to protect conveys. Armed convoys of ships escorted commercial fleets in this system. Aided in trade and made shipping less dangerous. Genghis Khan – Mongol waunched series of conquests southward across Great Wall of China. Ultimately built a permanent empire by incorporating peoples and some of their ways. Now, Afro-Eurasia regions were connected by land and sea. Jacquerie – 1358 French revolt. Peasantry that went on killing rampage of nobles and clergy. Insisted that they should no longer be tied to the land or have to pay for the tools they used in farming. Sufism – highly mystical and communal

Thursday, February 20, 2020

English reaserch paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

English reaserch paper - Essay Example et of rules, norms or processes by which individuals live since childhood and tolerating or understanding those having differing views of it is a challenging task. B. The advent of technology and the simultaneous evolution of globalization have blurred national and international boundaries thereby further stressing on the significance and need for encouraging cultural acceptance. As nations of the world, join hands for commercial exchange of goods and services, understanding cultural diversity has gained supreme significance. C. On the basis of the above arguments it can be established that there exists widespread cultural diversity across the globe and in the wake of globalization and rapidly blurring geographical boundaries, there is an urgent need to eliminate and reduce the cultural differences. This can only be done through encouraging cultural acceptance as it has great potential in eliminating the racial conflicts that tends to tarnish human development and create obstacles in the fight against environmental degradation. For instance, the fight against terrorism – a popular political agenda of the U.S. government which seeks to defend the nation from prospective terrorist attacks, is a glaring example of both – apparent cultural differences which has given rise to such animosity between faiths, and the investment of huge resources and manpower in arms and ammunition rather than investing the same in more culturally relevant issues such as global warming. D. Cultural acceptance may lead to better socio-economic relations among nations, protection of environment, development of a culturally diverse yet united world, establishment of world peace, greater racial tolerance, healthier trade relations, cultural globalization etc among others. â€Å"In these troubled times with the world in search of its bearings and way ward minds using the terms â€Å"culture† and â€Å"civilization† in an attempt to turn human beings against one another, there is an urgent

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Macroeconomics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 3

Macroeconomics - Essay Example They are growing fast which leads to the proposition that they will soon catch up with the western nations. The economic growth of India and China is bound to take the world in storm, making it easier to utilize their structural reforms and economic growth to structure a new model for the world to adopt. For the better part of the twentieth century, the west knew that the only way of gaining any advantage over them is by creating a platform that the rest of the world could only copy. Any country that copied the western prescriptions would prosper and stabilize, yet this obscured way of thinking did not hold any ground when the world needed to rise above the recessions that came thereafter (Levi 115). The western model seen as the most important part of civilization in the past was nothing more than a mere wish for the rest of the world. It was slowly fading away and new giant economies arose to fill in the gap and present new ideologies that work for the betterment of the society as a whole. The west was no longer an important force in the world economy based on their achievements. New economies were making them seem as if the past years were all inconsequential in meeting their immediate goals (Levi 116). India and China have set a mark that many countries see as the next determinant of what to expect in the economic world. These two countries are some of the largest economies in the world today, and China already surpassed the US as the largest economy in the world. India, on the other hand, is a great competitor for the ever-growing Chinese economy, and economists argue that it is going to beat China in the race to the top of the largest growing economy in the world (Levi 117). The one thing that will make it easier to rise to the top for the countries across the world to make it to the top of the growing economies is the amount of time they place in

Monday, January 27, 2020

Business Communication Systems Evaluation

Business Communication Systems Evaluation Oriston Cunningham Managing Communications, Knowledge and Information Jiggs $ Riggs Super Stores Ltd Table of Content (Jump to) Executive Summary Introduction Discuss the Range of Decisions to Taken Examine the Information and Knowledge needed to ensure Effective Decision taking Assess internal and external sources of information and understanding Justify Recommendation for Improvement References Executive Summary Business Profile Sucker Business Consulting Ltd Has over thirty years of experience which head office is based in New Kingston the business hub of Jamaica with functional offices across the Caribbean. We pride ourselves with the successes of our client base of over 2,500 business; micro, small and medium sized businesses that invest in our trusted professional consulting expertise to put them on a growth path, increase operational efficiency and a sustainable, profitability and revenue trajectory. We are a business of diverse professionals expertise with a focus to eliminate the complexity of problems faced by our client business’ and simplify business solution that will enable them to operate in a diversely competitive business environment. Business Profile JIGGS $ RIGGS Super Stores Ltd JIGGS Super Stores Ltd is a family owned business enterprise that has three outlets located in the parishes of Kinston, Manchester and St. James of the island of Jamaica. Great grant father JIGGS as he was passionately called by his family and friends had started a sales business out his garage in Kingston where he sold clothes, shoes and home accessories to the surrounding communities. The business expanded to the extent where he began to drive around with a delivery van and drop off orders to his loyal customers, he later joined partnership with a returning resident passionately called Riggs hence the name JIGGS $ RIGGS Super Stores Ltd. The first location was on Trafalgar road Kingston, The business grew to the extent where they felt the need to care for other customers thus the two other locations in Manchester and St. James. Both men had died and the business passed on their grandchildren Byron and Simeon who are co-managers of JIGGS $ RIGGS Super Stores Ltd. The recent performances of all three stores have declined steadily for past three years. The young partners tried a number of measures to stabilize the business: cut head count, extend operating hours, Increase longer payment terms and even turn off the air conditioning during operation hours but still operating at a loss and fail to breakeven. The co-managers have called a meeting and finally decided to sell and our client Private Partners (a group of small investors). The current financial position of JIGGS $ RIGGS Super Stores Ltd is as follows. Financial situation of Jiggs $ Riggs Super Stores Ltd INDUSTRY STANDARD July 2014 July 2013 July 2012 July 2011 REVENUE $8400000 $2500000 $2600000 $2400000 COST OF SALES 40% ($3200000) ($1500000) ($1600000) ($1500000) GROSS PROFIT 60% $5200000 $1000000 $1000000 $900000 EXPENSES 30% ($2800000) ($2400000) ($2400000) ($2300000) NET PROFIT 30% $2400000 -$1400000 -$1400000 -$1400000 Introduction Research Background The business environment is regulated by laws which guide organizations and their operations. The ever changing business environment demands the growth and development of businesses due to continuous aggressive competition and changes in market trends, (Klein, 2013). The mergers, acquisitions and take-over of businesses increased due to the growth of medium sized companies in their current markets and expanding their reach to new customers adversely, micro business operators are discouraged due to low financial performance and access to the kind of cash injection that will boost their business outlook. Business acquisition may have some draw backs also advantages both for the investors acquiring the firm and also for the previous owner(s). There are several legal matters that must be addressed in order for mergers, acquisition, take-overs and investments to take place. The paper will focus on evaluating the existing communication systems, designing new communication strategies to inv olve all stakeholders to own and drive the new growth changes necessary to put the business on the path to growth. The repot will look at communication terms and how they can be used by all stakeholders in the business. Germaine to the background of the research questions given, the researcher will establish a consultancy firm and present a case study of a small business Jiggs $ Riggs Super Stores Ltd owned by co-managers Byron and Simeon who have obtained new investors. The main impacts of this study is that for future referencing the researcher will have developed the skills necessary for understanding the relevance of communication within the context of business and how to use it to drive change and the overall growth of the business. Aims and Objectives The aims and objectives of the research paper are as follows: Assess how communications, knowledge and information can be improved within the business including making better use of IT systems. Create strategies to increase personal networking to widen involvement in the decision-making processes in the business. You will develop the communication processes, and improve systems relating to information and knowledge. Assess how managers in the business can improve the planning of their communications processes as well as their communication skills and can make the information and knowledge they gain accessible to other parts of the organization Literature Review (Michael E.D. Koeing) Knowledge Management, (KM) is a concept and a term that arose approximately two decades ago, roughly in 1990. This suggests that on the eve of the twenty first century and the advent of communication technology, managing communication knowledge and information or simply put knowledge management was seen to be very critical to join the bridges and make the links for individuals and business. In the early period of the knowledge management discovery Davenport (1994) originate version of definition: â€Å"He sees information management as specialized skill set which is needed by organizations in the promotion and integrated approach to identify, capture, evaluate, retrieve, and disseminate its intellectual assets; such as databases, documents, policies, procedures, and previously un-captured capabilities of the organization. The definitions though similar in nature are showing information as that vehicle that will bring the message of the organization to internal stakeholders and external stakeholders and will in effect create the intended model for success. Knowledge management from an operational was created within consulting community hence the principles of knowledge management went viral by the consulting organizations to other disciplines. Consulting firms since realized the opportunistic use of the Intranet to create the linkage to narrow the geographically gap and provide a greater dispersion of a knowledge-based organizations. (Steve Denning) make the contrast in his article (What is Knowledge) between the east and west, the interchangeable use of information and knowledge and the cultural preference of intuitive knowledge and the rational knowledge. He made the point that knowledge is sticky though information maybe transferable to other persons. In his discussion, the West depicted to lean more to the rational type of knowledge that is more scientific in nature and disregard on a high scale intuitive knowledge, some may argue the intuitive knowledge is not knowledge at all seeing that it is more implicit and tacit thus the movement of knowledge from person to person has deemed to be difficult which bring into focus the greater importance of rational knowledge. Polanyi (1975), and Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995). Further discussion that seeks to strengthens the soundness of knowledge as to that of information Western analysts (Karl Erik Sveiby) seek to put his mark on the subject see â€Å"knowledge† as wholly tacit (i.e. as capacity in action), consenting to other discussion that explicit knowledge is mere information. The East conform to a more traditional purview to celebrate the importance of the intuitive, when compared with the rational. The Upanishads for speak about a higher knowledge and a lower knowledge, they classify lower knowledge to that of the various sciences. Methodology In the acquisition of information both the qualitative and quantitative research methods were employed in the research execution. Qualitative research according Parkinson and Drislane (2011) is defined as a â€Å"research method using methods such as participant observation or case studies which result in narrative or descriptive account of a setting or practice.†(Parkinson and Drislane, 2011). The qualitative methods that will be used include questionnaire and interviews. Qualitative research interprets data and analyses words and ideas. The second research method that will be used is the quantitative method which is defined as an approach that assesses numerical data which can be used to support qualitative research findings. Quantitative method will be achieved using calculations and statistics gathered through questionnaires and surveys that will be administered to the entity selected for this research. Additional data comes from primary research tools that will be utilized by the researcher includes interviews, questionnaires and observations and the secondary tools that will be used are journals, books, newsletters, newspaper and online articles and documents. The methods selected are most appropriate as they will allow the researcher through the combining of the quantitative and qualitative research to provide the readers with a higher degree of accuracy, easier representation of questionnaire and survey answers. The qualitative method is less costly and more flexible considering from a student researcher context. TASK: 1 Discuss the range of decisions to be taken The type and scope of information used in organizations are complex and vast in variation to the size of the organization and the type of market they are operating in. Information and knowledge needs are also specific to the different functional areas of the organization thus it is the fluid of every working communication system that result into the overall success of the whole. Davenport (1995) knowledge management is a process used to harness, transfer and make the effective use of knowledge. Things to take into consideration are how information is harness and used at the different levels of the organization and the knowledge required, the different systems of information, their relevance, efficiency and effectiveness to the organization. The primary and secondary sources of information Examine the information and knowledge needed to ensure effective decision taking Information is knowledge obtained from investigation, study or instruction. e.g. Intelligence, news and facts or raw data (http://www.merriam-webster.com). According to the tripartite theory; knowledge is information that is processed that is believed, justified and is true. For effective decision making in the organization that will form part of its going strategy in a competitive business environment that is ever changing. The knowledge obtained by the sources of the organization internal and external must be in line with the goals of the business and fit with its different levels, strategic, tactical and operational. Strategic information needs- are customer surveys, market research, and statutory accounts, economic and financial information which are used to make long term decisions and shape the business strategy with overall vision. Tactical information needs- market reach, market survey, producers and consumers price indices, business performance indices, budget reports, consumer complaints departmental reports. Operational information needs- product quality matrix, quality management reports, production outputs, workforce performance, machine and equipment management and performance, batch quantity, economic order quantity. Assess internal and external sources of information and understanding Internal sources of information the means of data collection and compilation from systems internal to the organization which are used to enhance the decision making process and fuse the different linkages that enable the organization to achieve its objectives. Internal information in Jiggs $ Riggs Super Stores Ltd. Are Financial information financial information on the three super stores profits and losses, revenues, cost of sales, rates and taxes, staff wages and salaries. The financial manager and use this information to manage the performance of the business and see that it is profitable. Personnel Information this is the compilation of information of personnel by the business that is made available to them when so requested. Information is used to monitor productivity performance, length of work life, remuneration, productivity rate, health reports, information on training and development. Marketing Information marketing team determine value added products and services and their performances, information is obtained from sales and the informal channel used for innovation and to promote product based on the going trends. Purchase Information information used by the purchasing team to procure raw materials, good, services, and other inputs required to run the business. This team also monitors costs and quality to ensure there is value for money. Administration Information makes the linkages with the business’ workforce on business overall performance, annual budgets and projections, structural changes, changes in market conditions, investment and make the link with external partners and build relationships. External sources of information are sources of information generated externally by agencies or individual researcher or consultant Justify recommendations for improvement In order to improve the communication situation at the business the new management will embark on a communication strategy that is geared to harness greater involvement of all employees and improve their empowerment in the decision making process and make them full aware of the business performance on a more frequent basis. Conduct monthly town hall meeting deliberating on business performance, projections and market conditions Train all employees on how to improve and own the systems of communication Provide regular feedback on employees recommendation and reward where necessary References Davenport, Thomas H. (1994), Saving ITs Soul: Human Centered Information Management. Harvard Business Review, March-April, 72 (2) pp. 119-131. Duhon, Bryant (1998), Its All in our Heads. Inform, September, 12 (8). Koenig, M.E.D. (1990) Information Services and Downstream Productivity. In Martha E. Williams (Ed.), Annual Review of Information Science and Technology: Volume 25, (pp. 55-56). New York, NY: Elseview Science Publishers for the American Society for Information Science Ponzi, L., Koenig, M.E.D. (2002). Knowledge Management: Another ManagementFad?, Information Research, 8(1). Retrieved from http://informationr.net/ir/8-1/paper145.html Stephen Denning, The Springboard: How Storytelling Ignites Action in Knowledge-Era Organizations. Boston, London, Butterworth Heinemann, October 2000. Nonaka, Ikujiro and Hirotaka Takeuchi. The Knowledge-Creating Company : How Japanese Companies Create the Dynamics of Innovation. New York : Oxford University Press, 1995. http://www.kmworld.com/Articles/Editorial/What-Is-/What-is-KM-Knowledge-Management-Explained-82405.aspx http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/information http://www.stevedenning.com/Knowledge-Management/what-is-knowledge.aspx http://www.theoryofknowledge.info/what-is-knowledge/the-tripartite-theory-of-knowledge/ http://www.contentedwriter.com/internal-sources-of-information/

Sunday, January 19, 2020

America through the Decades

Throughout the history of the United States, there have been important decades that have impacted in different way in the life of American. There are some decades which have greatly changed the life of Americans in a positive way while other decades have had a negative impact in the life of America.In many cases, there are important events that will take place in some years that will have a great impacted in the later life of a nation. One of the most important decades in the history of the United States was the decade between 1940 and 1950s.This decade was defined the entry of the united states into the Second World War and  Ã‚   the consequent formation of the United Nations. Some historians have argued that this decade prepared the United States to play the superpower role that it has assumed in the world. The 1940-1950 decade had a great impacted in defining the American military power that propelled it to a superpower status in the world.This paper will look into some of the m ost important event that happened in the history of the United States in the 1940-1950 decade. The paper will trace the eventual entry of the United States into the war after the Pearl Harbor attack by Japan and the consequent defeat of Japan and surrender of Germany.The paper will also look into the role that the United States played in the eventual formation of the United Nations that has become an important world body in arbitration of conflicts.1940-1950 decadeThe 1940-1950 decade was one of the most trying decades in the 20th century. The decade came immediately after the American economy was recovering from the Great Depression after the New Deal had been reached which greatly changed the economic situation of the country.In this decade the population of the United States stood at 132,122, 000 and at the beginning of the decade, the rate of unemployment stood at 8,120,000. Due to the effect of the Great depression and the cost of the First World War, the national debt stood at $43 billion.Life expectancy stood at 68.2 for females and 60.8 for males.   This was also the decade which saw the Supreme Court make a ruling that blacks have a right to vote which marked the end of the oppressive Jim Crow laws. This decade also saw the end of the Second World War and the rise of the Soviet Union and the United states as the two superpowers in the world which also marked the beginning of the cold war.To the United States, this decade was particular important since it marked the transformation of united states from international alienation to a major player in the global affairs and a major interventionist in global conflicts.   Let us look in the details of the events that shaped the decade. (Threeworldwars, 2008)The 1940s were defined the event surrounding the World War II.   Since American entry into the first world, it had ended its decades of isolation from major global affairs. The First World War has taught America that the world was becoming more inte grated and what happened to its world was also likely to happen to her.The First World War had seen American wake up from her status which had bee outlined in the Monroe Document which upheld the principle of non interference in European affairs.   While the First World War was immediately followed by the Great Depression, the 1940s ushered in a new decade past the Great depression but new challenges of the Second World War was another challenge that the country had to go through (Lone star college, 1999).The decade ushered in with the Japanese attack of the Pearl Harbor on December 7 1941. There had been rumors that Japan was planning to attack Pearl Harbor in reiteration for the United States imposition on the country.However American forces did not expect the attack to happen and when it happened, it caught most of them by surprise.   The Japanese planes attacked naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii killing more than 2,300 American and destroying the USS Arizona and USS Oklah oma capsized.  Ã‚   The attack also sank three more ships and 180 aircraft were destroyed. (Herbert, 2004)This attack was a real surprise to the United States government ant it came at a time when the country was involved in a dilemma whether to go to the war or not. Church Hill had made several attempts to influence US President Franklin Roosevelt to join Britain into the war but there was resistance from the congress and the from the US public.The country was busy in reconstructing its economy after the devastating Great Depression.   However the Pearl Harbor attack was the event that made it clear that American had to go to the way regardless of the neutrality status that many had been calling for.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Cost of Capital

We've regarded how cyber crimes impact the performance and how we can measure the impact of cyber crimes. Case study of Amazon Inc. epresents the main and general information about the ompany, identifies its mission and objectives. We've evaluated the current situation in company's business and performance. Our case also determined and found exposures of Amazon Inc. to cyber threats. We've reviewed the strategy and performance of the company from four perspectives: financial, customer, internal, innovation learning &growth perspective. On the basis of our findings we've given specific recommendations to the company that would help to achieve its goals and maintain leadership in the market of online retail.Recommendations correspond to four perspectives we've used to review performance of the company. We are onvinced that cyber defense is an integral part of company's performance and hence the performance management. 2. Introduction 2. 1 Cybercrimes in information age Cybercrimes appe ared at the same time as the Internet. And the ways and technologies of crimes were, are and would be improving along the development of machines and technologies in the whole and in particular the Internet. Cybercrimes became the part of our world and in order to protect us from that, governments of all countries provide the laws to prevent from such things.Also there are companies, which provide the security services against cybercrimes: Cyberpath, ESET, TDI and any others. But, unfortunately, they cannot solve all the problems. The existing criminal laws in most countries should cover computer-related crimes or electronically perpetrated crimes. 2. 2 Use of informational technology in fraud The biggest cyber threat is that it may happen at any given time, it is simply impossible to find out when the new wave will hit and more importantly what type of wave will it be. Cyber threat may take different forms.Here are the most common especially for our company. The first and the least dangerous is the threat, which has not material impact on the company. As an example can be the defacing of the company's website by hackers. Second, more serious is the threat, which is haling for the financial gain. Not only have the businesses entered the digital world. The criminals have done the same as well. And nowadays it functions Just like any other business. They have their strategies, management structures, quality control and so on.For example, hackers may obtain company's earnings reports before its official release. Having that knowledge, they may use it in making the decision of buying or selling stocks of that particular company. Keeping pace with new technologies also eeds certain portion of attention. Companies' risk exposure is constantly growing as the companies invest more and more in technologies (social, mobile, cloud, etc. ). All ot those can be a threat at the end ot the day. Mobile, tor instance, put the business in danger as the organization's corporate data suddenly may be assessed from the outside.Furthermore, the employees do not always fully realize the threat they are undertaking by sending, sharing or receiving the information on their personal devices. The same goes for social media, where the personal and professional line is often erased. One way that a hacker can gain illicit access toa system is through â€Å"social engineering†. Social engineering is a term used to describe deception against other humansl . A hacker may devise a scheme to trick another person into providing a username and password.Social engineering is as simple and effective as pretending to leave the room while another is signing onto a computer, all the while peaking around the corner to get a glimpse of logon keystrokes. Social engineering does not always take place face-to-face. Clever hackers have been known to place phone calls pretending to be a corporate help desk person or other legitimate artner asking for information that could compro mise access to computing resources. Imagine how many workstations are left wide open in a building when a fire alarm goes off.How long would it take for the alarm puller to drop a floppy into your desktop computer, initiate a process and be gone? Another category of intrusion tool is known as the scanner, or sniffer. Many operating systems come with vulnerability scanners that assist administrators in finding weaknesses. Public domain and commercial products are readily available, including SARA, Nessus, O SANS Institute 2002, Author retains full rights2. These scanners can reveal service ports that are open for attack and even details about the operating system itself.We should not be naive enough to think that these are out of the reach of the bad guys. Then, password cracking entails creating plain text passwords from their cryptographic hashes. Once the plain text password is garnered, access can be had. Password cracking tools are made available to system administrators for aud iting and recovery reasons. IP3 spoofing is a technique used by hackers as a means to gain hidden, unauthorized access to a target resource. They do this by impersonating a trusted resource.Specifically, a DDoS4 attack may change address information in the IP header of a message to make the target resource think the message is coming from a recognized, friendly port. When this technique is deployed in high volume, the attack can effectively dominate the target machine's resources, causing the target machine to perform sluggishly, or stop processing altogether. In addition to password cracking, social engineering, IP spoofing techniques, hackers have many other ways to perform destructive acts in the cyber realm.They have ways to hijack legitimate sessions, intercept and re-assemble IP fragments, take advantage of buffer overflows or flood a target machine with SYN requests. It is the wide and diverse nature of vulnerability today that argues for a strong cyber security management sy stem, one that begins with comprehensive policy and applies many technologies to achieve defense in depth. 3. Is business performance management relevant today? Business performance management is scientific approach to reaching the set of relevant and time limited goals by applying the definite set of metrics to assess the ffectiveness of resource usage.An evaluation of performance management regards indicators that numerically show the outcome of business activities. There are metrics for evaluating the success of a business: financial, internal, customer, strategic and compliance. Financial metric Financial metric includes sales, profits and costs. This metric shows us if our sales decreased or increased and if decreased, we should investigate why. But more important metric is how our profits behave. If our sales go down, our profits could still increase because we decreased the rate of cost.Internal metric Internal metric provides an evaluation management working at the company. As usual, this metric is better in small companies, because managers are closely connected with the employees rather than in big corporations. Customer metric Businesses exist to serve the needs of their customers. This means that behviour and loyalty of customers, and their level of satisfaction, provide us with a good measure for business long-term health and performance. Strategic metric Companies create strategies to reach short and long-term targets.An evaluation of the strategic performance management includes the quality of execution the trategies that management tried to implement. Strategies specify actions that management expects to achieve the desired result. An evaluation considers implementation of the strategies, successful execution of the planned actions by the company and whether results comply with the goals. Compliance metric Compliance metric measures effectiveness of compliance within the organization. Management should demonstrate ability to comply with financi al reporting standards, regulations and environmental legislation.Ideally, business should not have any imposed sanctions from the authorities. As we mentioned all these metrics are important for successful existence of the company. Without business performance management the company will collapse because, for example, if the company does not know what is its profit or its customer rate, what is inside in the company and so on and so forth. Measuring and keeping track on business's performance is essential for every company. If you don't evaluate your past performance you can't make realistic sustainable plans for the future. Cost of Capital We've regarded how cyber crimes impact the performance and how we can measure the impact of cyber crimes. Case study of Amazon Inc. epresents the main and general information about the ompany, identifies its mission and objectives. We've evaluated the current situation in company's business and performance. Our case also determined and found exposures of Amazon Inc. to cyber threats. We've reviewed the strategy and performance of the company from four perspectives: financial, customer, internal, innovation learning &growth perspective. On the basis of our findings we've given specific recommendations to the company that would help to achieve its goals and maintain leadership in the market of online retail.Recommendations correspond to four perspectives we've used to review performance of the company. We are onvinced that cyber defense is an integral part of company's performance and hence the performance management. 2. Introduction 2. 1 Cybercrimes in information age Cybercrimes appe ared at the same time as the Internet. And the ways and technologies of crimes were, are and would be improving along the development of machines and technologies in the whole and in particular the Internet. Cybercrimes became the part of our world and in order to protect us from that, governments of all countries provide the laws to prevent from such things.Also there are companies, which provide the security services against cybercrimes: Cyberpath, ESET, TDI and any others. But, unfortunately, they cannot solve all the problems. The existing criminal laws in most countries should cover computer-related crimes or electronically perpetrated crimes. 2. 2 Use of informational technology in fraud The biggest cyber threat is that it may happen at any given time, it is simply impossible to find out when the new wave will hit and more importantly what type of wave will it be. Cyber threat may take different forms.Here are the most common especially for our company. The first and the least dangerous is the threat, which has not material impact on the company. As an example can be the defacing of the company's website by hackers. Second, more serious is the threat, which is haling for the financial gain. Not only have the businesses entered the digital world. The criminals have done the same as well. And nowadays it functions Just like any other business. They have their strategies, management structures, quality control and so on.For example, hackers may obtain company's earnings reports before its official release. Having that knowledge, they may use it in making the decision of buying or selling stocks of that particular company. Keeping pace with new technologies also eeds certain portion of attention. Companies' risk exposure is constantly growing as the companies invest more and more in technologies (social, mobile, cloud, etc. ). All ot those can be a threat at the end ot the day. Mobile, tor instance, put the business in danger as the organization's corporate data suddenly may be assessed from the outside.Furthermore, the employees do not always fully realize the threat they are undertaking by sending, sharing or receiving the information on their personal devices. The same goes for social media, where the personal and professional line is often erased. One way that a hacker can gain illicit access toa system is through â€Å"social engineering†. Social engineering is a term used to describe deception against other humansl . A hacker may devise a scheme to trick another person into providing a username and password.Social engineering is as simple and effective as pretending to leave the room while another is signing onto a computer, all the while peaking around the corner to get a glimpse of logon keystrokes. Social engineering does not always take place face-to-face. Clever hackers have been known to place phone calls pretending to be a corporate help desk person or other legitimate artner asking for information that could compro mise access to computing resources. Imagine how many workstations are left wide open in a building when a fire alarm goes off.How long would it take for the alarm puller to drop a floppy into your desktop computer, initiate a process and be gone? Another category of intrusion tool is known as the scanner, or sniffer. Many operating systems come with vulnerability scanners that assist administrators in finding weaknesses. Public domain and commercial products are readily available, including SARA, Nessus, O SANS Institute 2002, Author retains full rights2. These scanners can reveal service ports that are open for attack and even details about the operating system itself.We should not be naive enough to think that these are out of the reach of the bad guys. Then, password cracking entails creating plain text passwords from their cryptographic hashes. Once the plain text password is garnered, access can be had. Password cracking tools are made available to system administrators for aud iting and recovery reasons. IP3 spoofing is a technique used by hackers as a means to gain hidden, unauthorized access to a target resource. They do this by impersonating a trusted resource.Specifically, a DDoS4 attack may change address information in the IP header of a message to make the target resource think the message is coming from a recognized, friendly port. When this technique is deployed in high volume, the attack can effectively dominate the target machine's resources, causing the target machine to perform sluggishly, or stop processing altogether. In addition to password cracking, social engineering, IP spoofing techniques, hackers have many other ways to perform destructive acts in the cyber realm.They have ways to hijack legitimate sessions, intercept and re-assemble IP fragments, take advantage of buffer overflows or flood a target machine with SYN requests. It is the wide and diverse nature of vulnerability today that argues for a strong cyber security management sy stem, one that begins with comprehensive policy and applies many technologies to achieve defense in depth. 3. Is business performance management relevant today? Business performance management is scientific approach to reaching the set of relevant and time limited goals by applying the definite set of metrics to assess the ffectiveness of resource usage.An evaluation of performance management regards indicators that numerically show the outcome of business activities. There are metrics for evaluating the success of a business: financial, internal, customer, strategic and compliance. Financial metric Financial metric includes sales, profits and costs. This metric shows us if our sales decreased or increased and if decreased, we should investigate why. But more important metric is how our profits behave. If our sales go down, our profits could still increase because we decreased the rate of cost.Internal metric Internal metric provides an evaluation management working at the company. As usual, this metric is better in small companies, because managers are closely connected with the employees rather than in big corporations. Customer metric Businesses exist to serve the needs of their customers. This means that behviour and loyalty of customers, and their level of satisfaction, provide us with a good measure for business long-term health and performance. Strategic metric Companies create strategies to reach short and long-term targets.An evaluation of the strategic performance management includes the quality of execution the trategies that management tried to implement. Strategies specify actions that management expects to achieve the desired result. An evaluation considers implementation of the strategies, successful execution of the planned actions by the company and whether results comply with the goals. Compliance metric Compliance metric measures effectiveness of compliance within the organization. Management should demonstrate ability to comply with financi al reporting standards, regulations and environmental legislation.Ideally, business should not have any imposed sanctions from the authorities. As we mentioned all these metrics are important for successful existence of the company. Without business performance management the company will collapse because, for example, if the company does not know what is its profit or its customer rate, what is inside in the company and so on and so forth. Measuring and keeping track on business's performance is essential for every company. If you don't evaluate your past performance you can't make realistic sustainable plans for the future.